The spin and orbital degrees of freedom play a crucial role in determining the remarkable properties of transition metal oxide materials. In this talk, I will describe how resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) opens up important new possibilities for measuring these degrees of freedom even in challenging cases such a heterostructures and transient states . This includes determining how orbitals are modified within LaNiO3-based heterostructures  and characterizing the spin behavior within the ultra-fast transient state of photo-doped Sr2IrO4 .
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2. G. Fabbris et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 147401 (2016)
3. M. P. M. Dean et al., Nature Materials 15, 601-605 (2016)