Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interaction, is a cornerstone of the Standard Model of modern physics. It explains all nuclear matter as bound states of point-like fermions, known as quarks, and gauge bosons, known as gluons. The gluons bind not only quarks but also interact with themselves. Unlike with the more familiar atomic and molecular matter, the interactions and structures are inextricably mixed up, and the observed properties of nucleons and nuclei, such as mass and spin, emerge out of this complex system. To precisely image the quarks and gluons and their interactions and to explore the new QCD frontier of strong color fields in nuclei, the Nuclear Physics community proposes an US-based Electron Ion collider (EIC) with high-energy and high-luminosity, capable of a versatile range of beam energies, polarizations, and ion species. The community is convinced that the EIC is the right tool to understand how matter at its most fundamental level is made.