Origin of vertical orientation in two-dimensional metal halide perovskites and its effect on photovoltaic performance
Thin films based on two-dimensional metal halide perovskites have achieved exceptional performance and stability in numerous optoelectronic device applications. Simple solution processing of the 2D perovskite provides opportunities for manufacturing devices at drastically lower cost compared to current commercial technologies. A key to high device performance is to align the 2D perovskite layers, during the solution processing, vertical to the electrodes to achieve efficient charge transport. However, it is yet to be understood how the counter-intuitive vertical orientations of 2D perovskite layers on substrates can be obtained.
Recently, the team of University of Virginia made of Chemical Engineer Josh Choi’s group and Physicist Seung-Hun Lee’s group reports a formation mechanism of such vertically orientated 2D perovskite in which the nucleation and growth arise from the liquid–air interface. As a consequence, choice of substrates can be liberal from polymers to metal oxides depending on targeted application. They also demonstrate control over the degree of preferential orientation of the 2D perovskite layers and its drastic impact on device performance.
Origin of vertical orientation in two-dimensional metal halide perovskites and its effect on photovoltaic performance, Alexander Z. Chen, Michelle Shiu, Jennifer H. Ma, Matthew R. Alpert, Depei Zhang, Benjamin J. Foley, Detlef-M. Smilgies, Seung-Hun Lee & Joshua J. Choi, Nature Communication 9, 1336 (2018).